Mecca is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region.[8] The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina.

As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad’s first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave 3 km (2 mi) from Mecca),[9][10] Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam[11] and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims.